Archive for February, 2009
Next week, right before the midterm, we take up a basic question loaded with baggage—but one that’s so essential to this course that it almost forms the unconscious subtext to our class-to-class activities:
Is blogging a form of journalism?
(or, perhaps better put: Under what conditions is it journalism?)
To get you started thinking in that direction, please read the following (by the way—hint, hint—these pieces and the ideas they present likely will fit into your midterm next week) and respond by Tuesday:
First, take a look at Jay Rosen’s “classic” piece, “Bloggers vs. Journalists is Over,” which he wrote four years ago (that seems like forever in Web years, no?). It captures the essence of this debate. Then, read his 2008 update — “If Bloggers Had No Ethics Blogging Would Have Failed, But it Didn’t. So Let’s Get a Clue” — which focuses on ethics, trust, and the open-vs.-closed distinctions of blogging vs. journalism. Next, read this piece from the Columbia Journalism Review, which is subtitled, “Forget Who is a journalist; the important question is, What is journalism?”
For your weekend assignment, I’d like you to get familiar with WordPress.com so you have the technical stuff down when we begin our group blog projects in a few weeks. To do that, I’d like you to …
1. Set up a blog around a topic (any topic) that really captures your interest. Bear in mind, though, that this is more of a “beat” than a diary. Pick a current issue/topic that’s relevant beyond you personally.
(Note: Ultimately, successful bloggers get that way in large part because they’re hugely passionate about their subject. So, picking something you think about—all the time—is key if you’re looking to build a long-term blog. But, this is just a little assignment, so don’t feel pressure to come up with THE blog for your future. Just something interesting to get you started. If you can’t think of an idea, try this idea.)
On Thursday we move from discussing the pro-am hybrid of networked journalism to the more purely user-generated content of citizen journalism. In truth, the distinctions between the two concepts are somewhat fuzzy—the former being a new way of thinking and reporting on the part of professional journalists … and the latter, well, also representing a novel way of doing news, but more from the end-user side of the equation.
But let’s not get bogged down by semantics. The goal is to deepen our understanding of an ongoing but still unpredictable movement in the media toward a more participatory, open-source news paradigm.
You’re set to read my forthcoming book chapter (still a work in progress, so I welcome your feedback) and the oldie-but-goodie “11 Layers of Citizen Journalism” by Steve Outing. (And lest those readings paint a too-rosy picture of citizen journalism, be aware that early examples of the form have struggled, for reasons Jay Rosen can explain.)
As you think about the book chapter especially, some questions worth considering: What exactly is “citizen journalism” (and is that the right name for it)? Why should we care about the motivations, methods, and momentum behind this phenomenon? Regarding the last section of the chapter (p. 11 on)—how would you add to (or subtract from) the outline of trends in convergence, concentration, and conversation? What would you change? In short, what do you envision as the future for particpatory news? … Bottom line: Let’s explore the “so what” of citizen journalism.
Post your responses to the SuperMedia chapters here (by noon Tuesday). Focus particularly on chapter 2, but also discuss which of the book’s remaining chapters you chose to read—and provide a summary/analysis of it, for the benefit of those who read other chapters.
Here again are two videos from Michael Wesch that we’ve watched in class the past couple of weeks. Both touch upon key ways in which the nature of digital information—by its very nature—challenges traditional assumptions about human communication. I know the type was a little hard to read, and some of the terminology (such as XML) might have been new for you, so I suggest you spin through them again on your own.
We discussed citizen media this evening, but not in great detail, and not with a more complete picture of simply “What is a citizen media site?” So, your class assignment this weekend is to extend our discussion on citizen media by digging a little deeper into this issue: What makes a website a citizen media/journalism site? What are its defining features? What makes it successful (or not)? What kind of lessons can we take from this? … Here’s your assignment:
1. Read again this section from the PEJ report on the state of citizen media in 2008:
Getting a Read on ‘Citizen J’
To get a better sense of citizen journalism Web sites, a team of researchers from Michigan State University, the University of Missouri and Ohio University have embarked on a two-part study titled Tracking and Analyzing Community News Models, funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts and the Knight Foundation. The first phase, conducted in late 2007, was an audit of various features on 64 citizen journalism sites in 15 metropolitan areas. Phase 1 examined the sites for such elements as the posting of outside material, the use of links and the extent of advertising. The sites studied ranged in their reach from covering an entire metro area to a smaller city to even a single neighborhood. (Click here for the full report).
The fact that 15 metro areas now include at least this many local citizen news sites and local blogs is something of a finding. The phenomenon is becoming more robust.
The other discovery was that, for all that citizen journalism might imply openness and interactivity, the majority of sites analyzed tended to demonstrate the instincts of “strong gatekeepers” who control the content and are somewhat more difficult to interact with than the ideals of citizen journalism suggest. Now, instead of professionals, those gatekeepers were the bloggers or citizens who ran the sites.
The majority of sites did not allow users to post news and feature stories, information about community activities, letters to the editor, photographs or videos, the study found.
The one form of openness was that the majority, indeed almost all, did allow users to post comments about the material on the site, but the staff reserved the right to edit or otherwise screen the comments to meet its standards of civility.
Among other trends that emerged: Most offered only limited ways to interact with staff, were low-tech compared with mainstream media sites and had spotty advertising. Many of these sites were also very young, established only in the last six months, which may explain some of the lag in technological sophistication. One area where they seemed comparable with established media outlets was in direct links to additional information.
2. Let’s put this to the test. Go to this interactive directory of citizen media sites that we visited at the end of class today. Pick three sites (either at random or of interest) and spend some time familiarizing yourself with your options for contributing content beyond merely comments—can you add your own stories, photos, video, etc.? With what kind of ease?
3. In the comments section here, post a brief analysis (maybe 100 words on each) of what you’ve found. Tell us about the sites you looked at (give us the URL) and their strengths/weaknesses as a citizen media hub: How open and intuitive are they? What kind of activity are they getting? (i.e., are the posts going comment-less, as if in a vacuum)? To whom do the sites link—mainstream media, alternative media, other bloggers? Bottom line: Is this a place you’d want to hang out or build a community?
Doing this little exercise will give you a better sense for what exactly is a citizen media site, and what can make one better. That’s a key theme we’ll keep revisiting in the coming weeks, particularly as we take up issues of community organizing and citizen journalism.
On Tuesday, we covered the state of the professional news media, which, to be sure, is highly disconcerting (falling revenues, failing business models, vanishing jobs—oh my!). And, yet, as we discussed, the very fluidity and uncertainty of the situation makes it all the more open for upstart journalists (like you) to make a big difference right from the start—to break in with new skill sets and mindsets.
So, it’s not all bad news out there.
Today, we look at the state of citizen media, first addressing questions such as: What is citizen media? (and citizen journalism?) How is this kind of media both like and unlike what the “pros” are doing, where do the two begin to blur online? Those are just up-front baseline questions. I’m more interested in having you explore the overall lay of the land through this piece from the Project for Excellence in Journalism. It’s a good overview of some of the key terminology and trends we’ll touch on this semester. After you read this, put the report within the larger context of major trends noted by PEJ.
Here’s one thought to consider: In it’s “major trends” report, PEJ says, “The prospects for user-created content, once thought possibly central to the next era of journalism, for now appear more limited, even among “citizen” sites and blogs.” Why? And might they be wrong? … Consider this report in the context of your lived experience. What’s happening out there, online? Where are we going from here?
Second, and just as important, you’re going to be reading pages 1-40 from Charlie Beckett’s SuperMedia book. With this one, try to ask yourself: How did the media “get here,” to this current state of flux? and what kind of journalism could (and should) emerge in the future?
(p.s. I’m trying out this WordPress tool called Zemanta, which allows you to autmotically include related blog posts based on keywords in your blog … so, below, I thought I’d toss in a few posts for fun.)
Related articles by Zemanta
- Forrester: Is Hyperlocal Hype Or Happening? (lostremote.com)
- Study: ‘Excellent’ Journalism Apparently Nice to Everyone [Bias] (gawker.com)
- How Journalism Students Used Twitter to Report on Australian Elections (pbs.org)
- Should the New York Times Charge For its Website? [Newspapers] (gawker.com)
- CMLP: Is liveblogging a trial journalism? (blogs.journalism.co.uk)